Biliary Microlithiasis

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Biliary Microlithiasis - Theories


Foci passing through the CBD may be relatively common but it is uncommon for a circumstance resulting in pancreatitis. The pancreatic duct is a low pressure system, no contractions, multiple varied sized ducts, fragile to pressure and easily obstructed compared to the CBD... [ more ]

RUQ Pain

Intermittent RUQ pain could result from temporary obstruction in the cystic duct or ampulla. Foci may cause intermittent RUQ pain and they occur with and without gallstones... [ more ]

CBD Stones, Cholangitis, Elevated Liver Functions

The way foci cause these three disorders must be nearly identical. A chronic single or impacted sieve-like mass of foci could cause partial ampullary obstruction. This obstruction could occur over long periods of time because the pressures across the obstruction are balanced so the obstruction is not broken down... [ more ]


Cholecystitis could result from foci obstructing in the cystic duct in the presence of gallstones (foci do associate with gallstones) or without gallstones (acalculus cholecystitis). It may be uncommon for foci to be a nidus for cholelithiasis as gallbladder wall contractions could clear foci quickly... [ more ]

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

We question a role for foci in primary biliary cirrhosis which improves on URSO therapy. Foci may result in a chronic low grade ampullary obstruction over very long periods. Two patients with elevated liver enzymes had a history of intermittent RUQ pain for up to 18 years... [ more ]